It was just after the war that my parents bought Waundwgi, a derelict 18th century Welsh farm. They loaded all their possessions into their open topped ex-US army jeep called “Stormy Weather” that had survived the Normandy landings. For the next two days they drove across post-war Britain with Timothy, their new born baby, in Talitha’s arms. When they arrived they discovered the previous owners, the Bells, had changed their mind about leaving and were barricaded in the farmhouse. My exhausted parents had to book into a local hotel and wait until the previous owners were away at market to break into their new farm and change the locks.
Waundwgi (lit. Otter’s Moor) had no electricity or telephone, and the only water supply was from hand pump over a well in a shed. My mother tells me it took 1000 pumps to extract enough water for a bath. The loo was a plank with two holes over a stream.
As the name suggests the farmstead was situated next to a river at the bottom of steep hill at the end of a very long windy lane that was too hard for cattle trucks to reach. The farm buildings were run down and big piles of rubble filled the yard. The fields nearest to the river were very boggy and got churned up by hooves of the dairy herd.
Fortunately their neighbours, who all spoke Welsh as their as their first language, were very friendly and helpful, and they were welcomed into the community as strange and exotic “educated” people from a completely different culture. My parents were the first farm in the area to own a tractor.
Nicholl, who had served on the North Atlantic convoys during the war had recently completed his agricultural studies at Trinity Hall Cambridge, was fired up with the post war enthusiasm to rebuild the economy. He imagined himself solving the problems of food shortages in rationed Britain.
Talitha, who had grown up in South Africa, loved flowers. 70 years later Talitha remembers Waundwygi for all its hardships, but also the daffodils. Double daffodils that were growing along the long lane down to their farm.
In 1999, 42 years after my parents left Waundwygi, Mami and I bought a run down house in the same locality, As the crow flies, Lampeter House is two miles from where I was born.
Lampeter House is a 16th century farmhouse that has been added to in the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries. We can see from the large cedars and a very old tulip tree that there was a garden here many centuries ago and a line of yew trees that I believe were planted along a pilgrims path to a holy spring on the edge of the hill overlooking the house. I know from a newspaper clipping that Lampeter house employed a Mr Lycett as a gardener in 1910, but when we arrived there were very little left of his garden other than a few scattered rose bushes and some old apple trees in the walled garden. In the woodlands were double daffodils, just like the ones my mother had described grew at Waundwgwi.
The daffodils are very distinctive and have a wild look with their have gnarled petals which are often streaked with green and a strong scent that is a bit lemony. They come in a wide variety of shapes and sizes so no two flowers are ever the same.
I have often wondered about these flowers. Having no name I have always called them “Pembrokeshire Princesses” because they seem wilder and more authentic than the perfect commercial varieties we get from garden centres, and they seem to belong to a more ancient landscape. A few days ago I spotted another clump beside the entrance gate of local farm. This persuaded me to try and find out more about them on Google.
Quite quickly I found a plant that matched; “Van Sion” daffodils are “a very ancient variety often found in old country gardens”.
The Van Sion Daffodils
The bulbs of Van Sion an ancient much loved hardy English variety named after a Fleming called Vincent Sion who lived in London in 1620. Mr Sion was obviously intoxicated by the daffodil that “resembled no wild species” and cherished it in his garden for many years. After his death the bulbs passed to his friend George Wilmer of Stratford Bowe, who came to call it Wilmer’s Double Daffodil.
All this was happening at the same time as Tulip mania in Holland (1633 -37), and it seems Vincent Sion’s bulbs were a curiosity amongst the gentry classes in Northern Europe. Vincent Sion bulbs became known as Van Sion and were carried across Northern Europe and taken by emigrants all over the world. I cannot do better than quote Jennifer Moonsong’s (Kentucky USA) blog account of the plants history.
By the 1700s, the unique-faced flower had spread throughout a good portion of Northern Europe.
The flower, so hearty that it can propagate with ease, and is easily transplantable, even when the bulbs must lay dormant for long periods of time, became a popular item for English, Irish and Scottish immigrants who came to America.
It was a means for them to preserve something sentimental of their heritage, particularly considering that the flower often grew wild around their houses and graves of loved ones.
At the same time that it made its way to America it was also apparently making its way to other parts of the globe.
Botanists’ records of the flower have been found, from the 1700s and 1800s as far east as New Zealand as well as along the Spanish Riviera and in Portugal.
In America, immigrants planted it in the places they first settled, particularly the hills of Appalachia.
Even today with those first settlers’ hillside dwellings gone, you can often find the location of old homes by looking for the long-blooming Van Sion in the Virginias, Kentucky, Tennessee and Carolinas.
Their beauty did not go un-noted. They soon became a favorite flower amongst the Native Americans who remained in the hills, and were carried with some of the Cherokee who traveled the Trail of Tears, accounting for their prolific growth in modern day Oklahoma.
Likewise, African American slaves, once freed, often took bulbs from the daffodil north... it is prolific in all states east of the Mississippi and a few to the west.“
I thought I had wrapped it up, until I found a story about the Derwydd daffodil that was once grown in the gardens Dwerydd mansion, a 15th century mansion at Llandybie near the market town of Llandeilo in Carmarthenshire. Because it has strangely contorted blooms with green streaks the Derwydd has been described as The ugliest daffodil in the world
The Welsh Derwydd Daffodils
Whilst the Dwerydd look similar to the Van Sion, the Derwydd have more irregular petals and more green streaks, they almost certainly evolved separately, maybe out of the “Tenby” which is the single daffodil variety found wild across South Wales. Daffodils themselves were introduced from southern Europe by early travellers, quite likely the Romans who used them as medicinal plants.
The earliest written record that mentions a double daffodil (that might have been the Derwydd) is in a document made during a 12th century dispute over the boundaries in the neighbourhood of Llandeilo Talybont between the Bishopric of Glamorgan and that of St. David’s.
The story used to go that Derwydd were not greatly valued at Derwydd Mansion and died out, and for a long while the variety were thought to be extinct until they were rediscovered about 30 years ago in the ancestral Johnston family cemetery in Tennessee (USA).
The Welsh Botanical Gardens tell me this story is wrong. The Dwerydd never died out, they were just overlooked and are still quite common in Carmarthenshire, especially around Llandeilo. On the internet I have discovered that a cluster of sites have been discovered in the neighbourhood of Cilgwyn Lodge on the other side of Llandeilo, one plant at a cemetery at Horeb and Cynheidre near Llanelli, and many by the Gower Wildlife who record the flowers quite common on the Gower peninsular. The Botanic gardens have a big display of Derwydds outside the Ice House.
The Derwydd have more contorted petals and are greener than the Van Sion. The Welsh Botanical Gardens have identified our daffodils from the photographs I took as most probably being Derwydds. It is interesting that the flowers in America were at the Johnston Family Cemetery and I wonder if the family have a connection with the little hamlet of Johnston in Pembrokeshire? I am not sure how many other sites have been discovered in Pembrokeshire.
I always did find the misshapen green petals of our Derwydds more appealing than the big heads of commercial varieties that have taken over and are everywhere. Partly because they were so important to my mother in the hard times just after the war, but also in amongst the long grass the princesses look like natural wild flowers. Now I know so much more about them I will spread our clumps of Derwydds that are growing vigorously in our woodlands, and love them even more deeply.
Perhaps you have seen these flowers, or something similar in old gardens? Please let me know, or add your comments.
The plant originated in south-western Europe and was first cultivated by the Romans, who believed that daffodil sap could heal wounds. Actually, sharp crystals of calcium oxalate4 in the sap, which prevent animals from eating the plant, can irritate human skin.
The original English names, Daffodowndilly and Daffodily Affodily, are corruptions of the original Greek ‘Asphodel’. The French, who utilise the plant as an antispasmodic, know them as fleur d’asphodèle, and also pauvres filles de Sainte Claire.
Releasing myself from the world of words, I look up from my book. In my world of vision Zaza is walking towards me, on silent paws she picks her way over the dampness of the rotting leaves and jumps up next to me. She wants to share a moment of togetherness, so I place a sketch book next to her and she knows my meaning. She chooses the comfort of sitting on the book’s dry surface.
Together our eyes share all that is happening in our little patch of wildness, but our experiences are different. I get pleasure seeing the milky heads of Candlemas bells reaching up through the cold earth to grasp warmth from weak rays of the sunlight. The yellow light filters through a twig laced lattice high above our heads, and it reminds me of a church window. My mind wanders to thoughts of spring festivals and new life.
Zaza’s mind is elsewhere; her wet nose is pointed towards a bushy ropes of ivy that hang in garlands from the trunk of an old cedar tree. She is wrapped in attention that her whiskers twitch, her ears are pricked catching sounds of movements. We are both watching a wren fidgeting in patches of darkness under the leaves, and the wren is interested in us. He is agitated and hostile, and from his bunker he fires volleys of chattering abuse. His hostility awakens the attention of blue and great tits that dance on the branches surrounding our spot, and high on the old cedarthe black beaked jackdaws start cracking the air with a raucous chatter. We are living at the centre of a parliament of noise and admonishment.
After a while Zaza is bored by the birds, or she has another idea, I don’t know? She jumps down and meanders her curved body between the smells of sleeping brambles and the remnants of last autumn’s lush vegetation. She slinks out of my world. I look back down to my book. Words tumble into my mind. Soon the memories of Zaza, brambles and birds are overwhelmed into a wall of new thoughts, and my world is far away from the spot I am sitting.
Well that is my story…….. were you to ask Zaza what happened she would tell you she experienced something quite different. That is if Zaza could speak, which she cannot. She knows no world of words and grammar, and she will not think of festivals when she sees snowdrops, or churches when she sees twig laced light. When she walks she feels the dampness of the leaves under her bare feet, her whiskers measure the air. Her perception is so different to mine. It is as Ludwig Wittgenstein, the Austrian philosopher, said, “If a lion could talk, we would never understand him.”
A phrase used amongst cognitive scientists to describe subjective experience is “there is something that it is liketo be“. The something it is like to be of each animal is created according to how their bodies are built. The subjective angle with which we perceive what is happening around us is called our “umwelt“. For instance we see dandelions as plain yellow flowers, but a bees have a broader spectrum of sight which include UV vision, so in the bee’s umwelt dandelions are seen as having a central blob or landing area.
Umwelt, and her sister Umgebung, are two words first used in this context by another German Speaker, Jakob von Uexküll (1844 -1944). They are concepts we all, especially artists, need to be familiar with. To give you a feel for what these words mean:
Umgebung ; is to perceive a the world as it is in reality, which is generally interpreted to be as science describes the world to be: At 12OO hours I am looking at a lawn which is 242 square meters large and has 571 flowering daisies plants.
Umwelt (literal meaning Surround-world) is to perceive of the world as an embodied, subjective experience. For instance: If I have no eyes I have no umwelt to see; if I am colour blind my umwelt cannot see the redness of red; if I am tired my umwelt see hills as steeper; if I am emotionally attracted by a pretty girl my umwelt does not notice her bad behaviour.
Now that we are loosely familiar with these two words we can begin to divide our world into two elemental forces; Umgebungan (factual – the world as described by science) and Umweltan (subjective perception – the world as we as individuals experience it to be) . As we will see the separation of these two elements is a gateway through which we can reach a better understanding of the structural foundations of perception, and drawing.
Drawing the Umgebung
If I were to take photograph of my lawn the camera would probably not record all the 571 daisy plants because some would be would be absorbed into the graininess of the image, others would be obscured by the garden furniture. Nevertheless I could argue that the picture was an accurate record of the real state of the world in my garden. An unedited snap shot taken with an iPhone provides impartial factual record of the umgebung of my garden, but it does not record everything about the garden.
Another way to record the umgebung of my garden would be to undertake a field study that mapped every plant on a scaled grid. The plan would again be limited in-so-far as I choose only to record the perennials, and have not included the mosses, lichen, wasps nests and earwigs that were also present. But it would still be a factual record of an aspect of the garden, however my record is a partial biased dataset of everything about the garden.
Technical drawings present an umgebungan view of the world, but like the ecologist with his daisies, they filter the umgebung to present a selective version of the truth.
The information remains accurate about the data found the umgebung, but showing only the information that we wanted to know, making information we want to see clearer to see. The result is a drawing that has filtered the truth to expose more clearly a chosen aspect of the umgebung
A diagram presents a chosen aspect of the umgebung in a stylised way. A good example is the extreme stylisation of selected information on the London Underground maps.
In this series of images we can see how the map was refined in stages, with unwanted information (noise) being dropped as the map evolved.
The final map, created in 1931, is an information chart about how the different train lines interlock with each other. The 1931 Art Deco image no longer looks like a map of London.
For every London commuter the map is as familiar as the words that run through their heads. Traveller with a journey to make drop their memories of real stations with real trains, and instead call up an image of coloured lines, imagining their intineries in terms of changing trains where red and blue lines intersect, and then again at the meeting of blue with black. The map has become a part of their phenomenology, an abstract mental visual image as easy to see as the colour red or a yellow dandelion.
I am now going to invent some terminology, a lexicon to frame the thrust of my theory about how drawing works, and to some extent give my art form a purpose that can be used to guide us artists to better understanding our craft. The first phrase in the lexicon I want to introduce is “truth story“.
Our brains are only equivalent to 40 watt computers that work at speeds thousands of times slower than your PC. They are not powerful enough to crack problems through the brute force of computer power, instead they work on a different principle of “the truth made simple”, where knowledge of the world is abstracted and re-presented in very simplified chunks. The London Underground map is a “Truth story”, knowledge that has been abstracted, simplified, focused, filtered into chunks of information that can used by our underpowered brains, to manage huge amounts of information that they would otherwise be unable to cope with. (Perception scientists have a word “Affordance” which maybe has a overlapping meaning)
The evolution of the London underground Map illustrates rather well how when we start out to make a drawing of features in the umgebung (real world) we undergo a process of filtering information into abstract forms that can be managed by our visual cortexes. The information is not presented like the information gathered by photography, it is instead reformed it into a new language of communication that is easy for our underpowered minds, especially our working memories, to grasp, move about, handle and adopt.
Drawing is just one of many examples of how truth stories are manufactured to help us understand the world. At the other end of the spectrum scientists use mathematics to make models of the real world, and reduce ideas like relativity into abstract formulations like Einstein’s E = mc2. Language itself is a method of chunking concepts into words that can afterwards be manipulated and used in working memory.
So far we have discussed making a drawing from the perspective of diagrams representing facts about the umgebung. It is a little surprising that we ended up finding ourselves in the world of subjective experience, the umwelt. This is a general principle of thought; even when we look out in the third person we end up thinking in the first person. How the world is as we experience it to be.
Now I want to look at drawing from the opposite point of view: Starting our journey of discovery in our umwelt, in the first person, in the world as we experience it to be, and and working out towards putting that world back into the umgebung. Making our phenomenology (all that stuff that happens in the privacy of our brains) manifest in the world of things.
A photographer will always start off as factual representation of the umgebung, but the way the image is processed by the photographer can add subjectivity. Here Abbas Baig tells us how he went about transforming a photograph into subjective umweltan artwork.
“Morning Poem. This was a smoggy December morning in New Delhi. In winter, Siberian seagulls flock to the Yamuna River, and I was able to capture this shot of them flying overhead. While editing this photo, I increased the blacks and highlights, and I adjusted the contrast. I also applied the Burn Tool in Photoshop to make a few birds’ wings darker, and I cropped the image to decrease the negative space.” Abbas Baig
Morning Poem by Abbas Baig
Abbas Baig played about with the tones and composition of his photograph to make it closer to the evocative experience he felt when he took the photograph of a boatman on the Yamuna river. He changed the factual information into subjective information, and by doing so made the image less truthful in the scientific sense, but a more truthful description of his umweltan experience. As a rule of thumb adding umgebung information orientates the image towards the scientific, and adding umweltan elements pushes it towards the artistic.
Amongst portrait artists there is a popular movement called photo or hyper-realism. This image of Taylor Swift by Alex Manole is a good example. Many hyper- realists create their drawings by careful mapping from a photograph.
We can love and admire the beauty of Manole’s draughtsmanship, and it would be an interesting picture to live with on the wall, but is the artist really providing any personal subjective input? Unlike Abbas Baig, the object of hyper-realism is to faithfully copy the photograph without introducing your own subjective experience. Hyper-realism goes out of its way to preserve the umgebung recorded in the photograph rather than providing for the artist to participate with his expressive contribution and umweltan experience.
In contrast umweltan drawings are focused on capturing the essence of subjective experience rather than copying objective reality. The caricaturist’s, cartoonists and animators are amongst the people that have been most successful at making the umwelt visual. This image is a portrait of Wellington, known in his day as “the Nose” (a very umweltan nickname). It is a hotchpotch of mental associations, subconscious biases and distortions that have been thrown together and allowed to run wild,. The image looks like nothing we know of in the umgebung, and it nothing like the experience of seeing Wellington if he walked into the room, but it is instantly readable and recognisable because it mimics the mind’s habit of jumping from one associated prejudice to the next. In this sense my use of the word umweltan is correct, even though to a pedant I might seem to be stretching my language.
The distortions and melding together of subconscious associations in the portrait of “A Wellington Boot” is reminiscent of the Lion Man of the Hohenstein Stadel (38,000 BC) which is contemporary with the earliest cave paintings and earliest evidence of figurative art ever found. This image of a man’s body with an animals head is a concept that reoccurs in multiple cultures across the world.
Exaggeration is a ubiquitous feature of perception. These Venus Palaeolithic figurines have the typical fingerprint of umweltan exaggeration. They are also metaphorical symbols of fertility, another trait of the human umwelt.
Cave art are the very earliest known paintings. They must have been painted and seen by the flicker of firelight and scholars speculate that they are “representations” of “the spirit world”. Is there anything more subjective that our sense of spirit? Seeing spirit and “belief” in other worlds is specific to the umwelt of our species.
The “representations”, a preferred word to “art works” by some in the Palaeontologist community, is an another interesting choice of words since it is also a preferred word amongst neuroscientists when talking about the creation of virtual images by subconscious processes. Much nearer to our age are the startling the fantasies of scribes in the margins of illuminated medieval manuscripts (marginalia).
You may say that when you look out of your window you will see the umgebung through your umwelt, and there will be no lion headed men or penis trees? Are these not works of the imagination, rather than the umwelt? This is a valid question that requires an answer; The umwelt in our wakeful state is not the same as the umwelt of our dreams and imagination. Whilst I cannot provide evidence to counter your claim, the umwelt images I see when I am awake are perhaps the same but under the stricter supervision than those I experience when I am asleep. Such factors as reason, working memory and knowledge. (Whilst driving late at night I have sometimes experienced hallucinations that bridges across motorways are mountains or castles. It is as if my brain has stopped filtering out wrong options. When this happens I always stop driving and take a nap).
In our sleeping state the umwelt we enter is uninhibited. Only last night I had a dream in which I had a vision of some worms that were asking for food like chicks in a nest. The worms had eyes and sharp vulture-like beaks with teeth. This dream was so vivid that I made a drawing afterwards.
I find it interesting that when I am dreaming I feel no surprise about the images I see. The strange beasties seem to have the quality of normality even though in my wakeful state I would be aghast, even frightened by them.
As you go to sleep there is a juncture between wakefulness and sleep where we see hallucinations. It is called Hypnagogia and lasts only a few seconds. I enjoy watching out for this moment because the images that arrive are random, unconnected to my daytime thoughts, vivid and sometimes quite extraordinary. They seem unconnected to the wakeful thoughts I am leaving and unlike dreaming they belong to no narrative; for instance the hallucinations will start an unknown family on motorbike with a father hugging a child (that a few nights ago, where did that come from?), or a house that I have never seen, or a basket of fruit. One night it was a pink horse with large pram wheels that rolled joyfully across my vision.
On anther occasion I saw sheep with trees growing from their backs. Most surprising to me is that the hidden machinery of subconsciousness can so effortlessly generate such a variety of original and perfectly formed ideas. I believe it points to the possibility that underneath the umwelt is a bounteous free-flowing river of complex grammars.
Of course modern painters have used the distortions, exaggerations and metaphor of umwelt experience for inspiration. Amongst the most vivid and uninhibited examples are the works of Edvard Munch who painted his landscapes in primary colours and human faces that look like pears with eyes. In spite of his distortion, and departure from the reality of the umgebung, Munch’s images speak directly to our emotions .
In the ancient classic world a new artistic tradition developed. Artists began to aspire to of reproduce the umgebung so faithfully and in such detail that their art would become “real”. Ovid, in his narrative poem Metamorphoses describes how Pygmalion wanted to bring an ivory statue to life with a kiss.
From the Renaissance until the end of the nineteenth century representational realism was the institutional art of all the great academies of an “enlightened” Europe. It was left to “new” movements of “modern” artists widely called the avant-guard to challenge the notions that copying the umgebung in fine detail was superior to “primitive” art forms. One avant-guard artist, Picasso, after looking at an ethnographic collection of masks declared in surprise modern art is not “modern”.
However hard they tried, representational art was never able to suppress the intrusions and distortions of the umwelt experience. Leonardo Da Vinci, and artists of his generation, spent their whole lives dissecting cadavers in order to develop good enough skills to make their art mimic the reality of the umgebung, but what did the artists do with this new knowledge? They reverted to painting the ghoulish visitations of their worst nightmares.
Umweltan art is irrepressible. It appears to come out of the imagination, which is another way of saying we invent it from nowhere. But our fantasies do come from somewhere; Fantasies of our imagination well up out from a myriad of opaque perception processes that do not obey reason and lie mostly unseen below the horizon of our conscious awareness.
Umwelts are “Truth Stories”
We all have our own way of experiencing the world. As a thought experiment imagine two photo-realist artists making a picture of a dandelion. One artist is a my cat Zaza, the other is Bee, a worker from our local hive. Both artists have been given the task of making an objective picture of the flower they are looking at in the real world.
ZaZa doesn’t really think much of flowers, and her mind wanders, so it is hard work for her to concentrate and do a good job. We have to force her to stick to her task, and after a lot of complaining and scratching she eventually paints a dandelion just as she sees it. To our eyes her picture looks dull because it is made in tones of grey and her lack of interest in her subject matter kinda shows. Nature blessed Zaza with the ability to see in the dark six times better than we humans do, but left her colour blind. Zaza’s main interests in life are catching mice in the night and sex, which is why nature has not gifted her with an umwelt that enjoys the redness of red, or the yellowness of dandelions like we do.
When it comes to Worker Bee’s turn she is really fired up. More than sex, which she gets none of, Bee loves flowers. Bee demands UV paints, and as she paints it seems to our eyes as if Bee is getting it all wrong because her flower has no centre. When Bee flies over our lawn she sees a field of ultra violet landing pads, that stand out like the red of cherries on a fruit tree. It is only when we get out a special camera that photographs UV light that we can see the dandelion like she sees it, and the passion, fine detail and delicacy of her brush strokes.
It is as if Nature gives each species a different truth story. Both Bee and Zaza painted pictures that they thought were true to the world. In Zaza’s umwelt flowers are dull colourless things she hardly notices, in Bee’s world flowers stand out with their golden rings with tasty UV centres. Through natural selection each species have umwelts that exaggerate truths that are useful for their survival.
As the great renaissance astronomer and philosopher Galileo Galilei (1564 1642) put it:
I think that tastes, odors, colours, and so on….
reside in consciousness. Hence if the living
creature were removed, all these qualities
would be wiped away and annihilated
The umwelts we have are truths, but our truths are no more than a reflection of the way Nature has hard wired our bodies to perceive the umgebung to be.
The Molineux Problem
When a new born baby opens her eyes for the first time what does she see? Is her umwelt already set up and ready to go? Up to now I have written as if sight, with all its vivid colours and 3D forms arrives pre-packaged out of our DNA. I have told you that flowers through the eyes of Bees have UV landing pads, whilst dandelions through our eyes are plain yellow. We see the way Nature set us up to see. In my writing there has been an assumption that Nature has set it up so that when Baby opens her eyes for the first time it is all just there. I have assumed Baby does need to go through a process of learning to see?
If we think about how we learn language. Baby, like all human babies has an innate ability to learn to speak, but she has to go through a learning process before language becomes part of her umwelt . Baby’s first experience of language would be hearing a jumble of unsorted data, a stream of consonants. Baby and Mother are both primed by their DNA to go through a long ritual that starts with Mother making a lot Baby Talk (IDS “Infant Directed Speech”) and helping Baby turn her burbles into words and sentence structures.
When Baby grows up she will see yellow dandelions, but when she first opens her eyes she may just see a jumble of unsorted colours. She may have to learn to understand how to put colours and shapes together, just like she has to learn words and how to construct sentences? The debate around whether we have to learn to see started way back on 7 July 1688 when an Irish hardware merchant called William Molineux wrote a letter to John Locke, the famous English physician and philosopher of the early enlightenment. It is known as “Molineux’s Problem“.
Molineux asked Locke “Suppose a blind man learnt to see a ball through touch. Would such a man, who by miraculous healing was given sight one day, be able to distinguish between a cube and sphere, or would he have to touch the objects first to knowwhich was the ball?”.
Molineux’s problem has been easy to test because people who born blind can be cured later in life with surgery. Oliver Sacks in his book “the man who mistook his wife for a hat” describes the progress of one such patient he calls Virgil. In the first hours and days after his cataracts have been removed, Virgil, and similar patients, cannot distinguish between a cube and a sphere by just looking at it. Only after they have had time to touch the objects do they learn how to recognise and see a sphere.
A large part of our umwelts, like our ability to see colours, are hard wired into our bodies at birth. This means the umwelts of all human beings are broadly the same, but if there is a learning process there will also be a diversity in the way the hardwiring is set up. Furthermore some of us are colour blind, some have perfect pitch, some have super sensitive taste. Hard wiring is not the full story, our brains are constantly being softly re- wired to adapt to the way we have experienced our lives in the world. Identical twins separated at birth will have the same DNA but different biographical histories, and they will granulate their worlds differently, developing divergent abilities that reflect the differences in their education, jobs and the cultural backgrounds. Whilst they will both see dandelions as yellow flowers, in subtle ways they will all experience the world in different and unique ways.
In another study it was discovered that the Occipital lobes, an area at the back of the brain which processes information from the eyes, are smaller in people who are blind from birth. Not only are the visual parts of the brain smaller, but they are also rewired to process touch sensations and language. Our brains are dynamic organs, that is to say when used they grow like exercised muscles do, or shrivel when they are not used enough. Areas that are not being used properly are recolonised to be used for other functions. This property is called plasticity
The Hard Wiring of our Umwelts
Our umweltan perceptions are so much richer experiences than just being able to tell the difference between a sphere and cube. Until quite recently we thought all the hard wiring took place in childhood, but more modern thinking concludes that the palette of human sensations that underpin human consciousness take a lifetime of practice, learning and wiring for our brains to achieve. We arrive in this world as innocents and whilst we might end them with weaker eyesight and wonky hearing our minds gain in old age richer inner lives and the wisdom of sages.
Much of the important hard wiring is set up in early childhood when we learn to see, hear, taste and walk, but the minds of humans are much more than this. The wiring work never stops being built out. It happen in stages, and the later wiring sits on top of the core structures of the inner brain, and develops in phases that broadly follow the evolution of our species (Phylogenesis). How the soft wiring is laid down is highly influenced by our memories, and are constantly being reorganised and embedded into the hard structure of our brains. Brains are dynamic events performing critical duties, like our heart beats they a fusion of activity and physical being that never rest during entire span of our lifetimes.
Phase 1: Development of basic sensations – As new born babies we are a blank slate, a tabula rasa, that know no identity, have no sense of place, no sense of time, no memories and no relationship with the world. Our first sensations are of seeing and hearing the noises of the world come at us in garbled avalanche of sensate experience, out of which the taste of the sweet milk and our mother’s faces gradually appear. In all the explosion of noise the overloaded brain finds out about the world by looking for patterns, memorising and matching experiences into truth stories; such as the associating of the taste of milk with feelings of being satiated; the cooing sound of “Mama” voice with the pleasurable sensations of being stroked and seeing her face.
During these first few months and years, whilst the brain is trying to find patterns amongst the garbled cacophony of noise arriving from the outside world, the physical brain is exploding in a process called “arborisation”.
The tops ends of the brain cells (neurones) have thousands of hair like filaments called dendrites, and these filaments reach out to receptors at the bottom of neighbouring neurones, making a network (arborising).
The networking reflects the rapid expansion of sensory and motor cortices (areas on the surface of the brain) in the first few months of life.
Learning to see is not a single modal sensory experience. Seeing can only be learnt when it is contextualised within the framework of multisensory experiences, as was demonstrated by a cruel experiment with kittens in 1963. Two blind kittens were put in a box harnessed to a lever. One kitten had its feet touching the floor and could walk, the other was confined in a cradle that swung around as its neighbour moved in a circle. The kitten in the cradle remained blind, whilst the kitten that could walk and relate its physical sensations of the world to what its eyes saw developed vision in the normal way.
Phase 2 Pruning: The rapid arborisation of dendritic connections provides a very good landing pad for recognising new sensations, but the young brains are now overconnected. The very young mind of a Chinese child can hear the difference between L and R, but the culture they are born inside does not differentiate the difference.
Their baby brains are over-wired and a new phase of pruning begins where unused connections are removed, creating new truth stories that remove the unwanted noise about the world. A process rather similar to how mapmakers extracted the information about the London Underground into a reality into a simplified truth story that was more readily usable by a 40 watt brain. A young adult Chinese citizen comes out of the process able to clearly hear the words their culture use, but unable to discern the difference between Rice and Lice. For the young Chinese adult L and R are the same sound.
Of course pruning limits the brains ability to learn foreign languages, but this is a price worth paying for a brain that works faster and is more energy efficient
Phase 3 Identityand higher consciousness;
Humans are amongst a very small group of animals that have a sense of self identity, and can see themselves as separate not only from the world. This small group of animals are considered to have what is called “higher consciousness”, that is to say they pass the “Mirror test“. To pass the mirror test a blob of rouge is put on the animals forehead, and when they see themselves in a mirror they will try remove it.
At 7 months a Baby shows the first signs of understanding she is an-other person, and not part of her mother. A this age babies become anxious about being separated too long from their mothers.
the reflection is not a another infant
the mirror mimics all infants own motor movements
the mirror does not have anyone else behind it
they are looking at a reflection of themselves
At 18month a baby shows signs of recognising herself in a mirror. This recognition follows a step by step sequence
There is one further step in understanding identity, it is to see the identity of an other. This understanding of an other’s identity is almost uniquely human and called “theory of Mind”.
This video nicely encapsulates the stages of recognition
Phase 4 Memory
There are strong feedback relationships between experience and perception. If I see a snake in my path my heart stops and I feel fear. If I later discover that the snake was a toy placed there by a naughty child I no longer feel fear, and my umwelt ignores its presence the next time the child tries to frighten me. How we perceive the world to be is guided by experience and our minds are moulded by memories.
Narrative Memory is very well developed in humans, maybe unique to our species. If you examine your narrative memories you will discover your autobiographical memories have three components; Place, Person and Time. It is as if we cannot remember something without having all three bits
Where were you on 9/11 = Place, Person & Time
Yesterday I went to London = Time Person Place
Person – Identity – dependent on concepts of self and other persons
Place – Organised by special place cells in your hippocampus
Time – Construction, usually between two place memories
Autobiographic Memory: Our first narrative memories usually occur at the age of two or three. My first memories are of my home at Waundwygi, Wales about the age of 3, and then moving home aged 4. The reason we do not have memories before this age is that toddlers below 2 years do not have sufficiently developed sense of time and identity .
Our autobiographical memories change our perspective on the world. They allow us to perceive the seasons, the relationships between a unopened bud and and bloom and of course we have a narrative of our lives; I was born in 1953 and went to a convent school at the age of five. Dogs and cats know to expect their dinner at five o clock and walk at 6,00 o clock, but they have no autobiographical memory. They cannot look back on their day and think “I hurt their paw in the morning and then I went to the vet before I had late dinner”.
An autobiographical memory is a key that unlocks the mind to perceive relationships. A bud will look like a potential blossom and fruit in the autumn after a long hot summer in a few months time. A snowdrop will bring back memories of childhood walk with an old aunt.
A picture of the virgin Mary becomes symbolic of Christian story of a man who died on a cross.
The transition from young to old happens throughout our lives into our old age when our sensate abilities have receded, because our hearing and sight has gone wonky. The umwelt of the young and the umwelt of the old are very different things, and whilst a teenager may experience the world of light and sound more vividly the minds of the old will have acquired ever greater skills of integrating their memories with their experiences of the present. Our umwelts are not static
When the new born baby’s brain is not fully set up when she opens her eyes, touches her mothers nipple and experiences the sweet taste of milk for the first time, her brain has to wire itself up to make sense of the wall of garbled sensate data that is arriving in her brain. The first few years of life
Soft wired Umwelts
In a famous study it was discovered that when London taxi drivers learn the street maps of London their Hippocampus (right side) enlarge. The hippocampi are brain structures shaped like a seahorse that is used for developing and storing of short term memory and spatial/place information.
As we practice new skills the connections between the neurones in our brains are softly reinforced and developed into main highways, and as we experience the faster communications across the brain we “see” things with greater clarity; for instance when a practiced chess player looks at a chess board they recognise patterns and can recall previous games. Their chess pieces project their putative personalities over the threatening formations of their opponents and their imaginations run simulations of how the game might develop.
But a chess player can have off days when their powers seem oddly diminished, maybe followed by days of greater insight. A glass of wine can throw a spanner in the works. It is as if our umwelts are changing as quickly as the weather, and this is indeed exactly what is happening. Our perceptions are as fickle as the memories that come and fade with our mood swings. This is hardly surprising as memories are the substrate of all learning and thought.
Sometimes the simplest experiments have the biggest impact on our thinking. This happened in 1995 when two researchers, Denny Proffitt and Mukul Bhalla, in Charlottesville USA, asked local people in a local park to estimate the incline of a Hill. Almost everyone they asked over-estimated the steepness of the hill. Over several days a typical participant would estimate a 5 degree hill as being 20 degrees.
One day out of the Blue, after a few days of gathering data, they got very different result. The participants on that day began estimating the incline much less steeply. Further research revealed that the visitors to the park that day were mostly members of a soccer team who were accustomed to keeping their bodies super fit by running on average 10 miles a day. These people, with their well tuned bodies, had umwelts that told them a different truth story. They regarded the hill was a lot less steep than the ordinary folk walking their dogs.
To put it simply the steepness of the hill is seen in umweltan (subjective) terms. The hill will look more daunting and steeper if we need to use a high proportion of our energy reserves the walk up the hill. When our bodies are well tuned and fit we have lots of spare energy and the hill looks easy to climb and shallower.
Further research revealed how quickly our truth stories can be changed
Athletes who were asked to wear a back pack changed their minds and no longer saw the slope as shallow.
Exhausted Athletes after a run thought hills were 45% steeper than they did before they went for a run.
Our umwelts are changing all the time and are very dynamic!
At the same time that Danny and Murkul asked their participants to estimate the steepness of the hill they had another piece of apparatus to ask a second question. The apparatus was a seesaw which they asked the participants to set to match the steepness of the hill. The same people who verbally estimated a 5 degree hill to be 20 degrees would place the seesaw correctly at 5 degrees. It was as if people have two umwelts telling two different truth stories; one umwelt was connected to their verbal thoughts and measured the hill in terms of walkability. The second umwelt was connected their hands and measured the physical world with complete accuracy.
If you think about it biologically this is very practical. Our umwelts are partitioned to tell truth stories that fit the tasks. When a conscious decision are to be made by verbal/reasoning decision making and thinking areas of our minds the truth stories will include emotional imperatives; “that hill is going to take a lot of energy to climb. The choice is yours, but do you really need to do that?“. When the measurements are fed into autonomic nervous system (ANS), such as about telling our feet where the floor is likely to be as we climb a slope, the umwelt gives us accurate unemotional guidance.
The partitioning of the umwelts for telling different truth stories to different parts of the brain is a ubiquitous feature of our mindscapes, and if looked for can be found everywhere, The practice is most clearly demonstrated by the Ebbinghus illusion. Our eyes are programmed by our umwelts tell our conscious minds that the left orange circle is small and the right one is big, when in fact they are the same size.
If the circles were poker chips on the table your hands would judge their size correctly when you wanted to pick one up, even though in our conscious awareness struth story tells us the left one looks much smaller than the right. This is another example of our umwelts being practical, multi modal perfection instruments that are able to emphasise two different faces of truth at the same time. In one case the important truth is about dividing the chips into bigness and smallness, in the other truth is about physical location.
An Artists Toolkit
Our umwelt tell us truth stories that exaggerate and make bigger the important things in our lives. Whilst much of the substance of our umwelts are fixed at birth by our biological set up, another equally large part is plastic and developed through practiced and learnt behaviour. As we move through the day our umwelts adapt to fit the tasks at hand, and the truth stories the umwelts are telling us are changed to fit with our priorities of the moment. Pain is part of our umwelt, we feel it when we are injured, but the pain miraculously disappears when we need to fight an enemy
Control of the plastic side of our umwelt is often buried deep in the processes of subconscious behaviours and emotions, but we also can have some say over how we partition our umwelts according to how we discipline ourselves and want to view truth. Understanding and owning our umwelts is an important tool in the practiced artists toolbox.
When an important person walks among a crowd we all focus on them, we create a truth story that eradicates the other people in the room and focuses on the one we think is important. Just like the counters in the Ebbinghus Illusion the presence of important people loom larger over the ordinary people in the crowd. The Artists of ancient Egypt noticed this in their umwelts, and would emphasise the importance of the Pharaoh by making him larger than his subjects.
As artist we employ truth stories the truth stories our umwelts present us with, but as we have already understood a shallow hill can look steep when we are tired. A small counter surrounded by bigger counters will look smaller, except to our hands which measure it as being the right size. Our umwelts change as quickly as the focus of our thoughts and our moods. They know no constancy. The artist is dipping into a pool of ever changing truths.
For Scientists truth is a rigid thing deduced and loved for its constancy. For artists seek the plasticity of truth experienced and felt with our umwelts. It is a fickle thing that changes with context, as when see hills that get steeper because we are tired and n longer have the energy to climb them, or people who loom large in our worlds because they have special importance in our lives, or girls who look more beautiful because they are our partners in making a family.
Each one of us is part scientist part artist. Every decision we make is guided by our emotions and reason not always working together. We all live in a multiverse of truths that compete for our attention I will leave last word to Emily Dickinson
I Died for Beauty
I died for beauty, but was scarce Adjusted in the tomb, When one who died for truth was lain In an adjoining room.
He questioned softly why I failed? “For beauty,” I replied. “And I for truth—the two are one; We brethren are,” he said.
And so, as kinsmen met a-night, We talked between the rooms, Until the moss had reached our lips, And covered up our names.
Drawing Movement Since 1975, when I started to go drawing at the Dance Centre in Covent Garden, I have spent many thousands of hours trying to capture the graceful movements of ballet dancers.
The next series of visual grammar posts will be about drawing movement. We will start by looking at the ways moving objects appear to change shape in unexpected ways and how knowledge of why these illusion happen can help us capture these movements in our drawings.
Shape Changing I always understood that the movements I was trying to capture with a pencil and paper are not the same as those seen in a still photograph. There is a simple schoolboy trick to demonstrate this; when you wave a wooden ruler between a thumb and forefinger the ruler appears to be made of a bendy substance. I have made a drawing of this bendiness illusion.
Bending Pencil Illusion
My friend Alberto has kindly prepared a video of a chopstick being waved to show that when a rigid stick is waved it appears to be made of a bendy substance.
but when you freeze frame the video you will see the reality is of an unbending ruler in mid-flight.
and if the video is restarted the bendiness illusion starts up again. This proves to us that the shape changing is happening in our minds. Conclusion: When rigid structures move they appear to become squashy-stretchy-bendy, but this is only happening in the privacy of our subjective thoughts.
Flash Lag There is a well known illusion called Flash Lag. Alberto has helped me construct this video to show the flash lag effect. The video is set up so that a yellow flash-dot occurs as the circling black dot passes the twelve o’clock position, like this:
Real World – Now
but when we watch the video we see something different. As you run the video focus your eyes on the centre cross:
This is what we appear to see:
As seen in the Mind – Now of the Real world has got disjointed
The flash-dot appears to light up after the circling dot has passed the twelve o’clock position. Events that happened simultaneously in the real world are not happening concurrently in our vision. The timing of the flash lags behind what happened in reality. The illusion demonstrates that Time is a construction of the mind, we call this brain activity “Time Perception” or “Temporal Perception”.
Time Perception – How it works (This section is complex; the best approach is to let the ideas wash over you and not to worry about understanding everything in detail!) There are many explanations of how simultaneous events in the real world lose their synchrony whilst being processed in the body and brain. To pick just one obvious (physiological) reason you need to imagine you are watching a nurse putting a bandage on your foot. Whilst you are watching her touch your foot you are also experiencing the sensation of the nurse’s hands touching your foot. The two sensations, seeing and feeling happen concurrently, or do they? The touch stimuli are carried by very long thin neurones that transmit pulses at quite slowly compared to the stimuli travelling along shorter super-highways between the eyes and the brain. It is an obvious fact that the touch stimuli arrived at the brain well after you saw the nurse touch your foot, but the brain unifies these two disjointed sensations into a single sensation. How does the brain unify simultaneous events that have become out of sync in the brain?
David Eagleman, who runs a laboratory dedicated to Time Perception, has demonstrated that if you look for “Temporal Illusions” they will pop up all over the place. This Wikipedia page has a selection of Temporal Illusions. Eagleman has written this short lucid summary of how he thinks the mind constructs Time Perception.
Eagleman asks us to envisage that our Subconscious thoughts are dispersed across the brain and happening at differing speeds in a sort of multi-verse multi-time environment, in contrast on a higher level we have a Self-aware Conscious Mind that uses unified time. The Self Aware Conscious Mind is slower and running a few hundred milliseconds behind the Subconscious mind. The Subconscious Mind provides the Conscious Mind with a version of events that is unified in time by a Master Clock.
Eagleman’s model proposes that whilst we might feel we are living in a river of consciousness we are in reality living in a river of past of experiences. Our Conscious minds are re-living events that have already finished happening in the subconscious part of the mind. The Master Clock is really a Was Clock (my term). This Model, which proposes that everything has happened before we become aware of it, appears to have no place for Free Will, but this view is to misunderstand how Free Will operates. The Conscious mind, which uses the Master Was-Clock, can assess the past activity of the super fast Subconscious Mind and then overrule/replace/control the way they are working. For instance when we step on a piece of green rope in the grass an alarm is set off by the super fast unconscious mind; our hearts start racing and we are petrified, then the slower concious mind assesses it was not a snake and our free will assist us in calming the heart and stabilising our emotions.
Our super fast subconscious minds are designed to work without a Master Was-Clock, they work with the raw unsynchronised information as it arrives. The subconscious mind does however still need to synchronise cause and effect. Eagleman demonstrates that there are Tidying-Up Clock(s) which constantly measure and remember the time differences between cause and effect of individual tasks. The Tidying-Up Clocks measure the misalignment between cause and effect, and these measurements are automatically included in the unified model of Time Perception that is later used to construct the Master Was-Clock.
A primary function of the brain is to predict cause and effect and to provide sensible responses. For instance cause and effect tasks we do in the physical world are constantly being measured and calibrated in the subconscious mind, for such tasks as how hard to push your foot down on the brake pedal to stop the car gently. If the worn out brake pads were secretly changed whilst you were sleeping you might be caught out in the morning and push too hard, but after just a few experiences your subconscious mind would re-calibrate your driving skill to include the effect of the new brake pads, and predict exactly how much pressure the pedal needed to give you and your passengers a smooth ride. Every super-fast subconscious reaction takes time to happen, so even the simplest everyday actions such as pushing a pedal or grasping a moving object, require highly sophisticated prediction and calibration machinery. Fifteen years ago neuroscientists were dumbfounded by a simple demonstration called the The Rubber Hand Illusion which showed how fast and easily the subconscious mind is willing to recalibrate it’s senses. It demonstrates that it takes only a few seconds and a few strokes on a hand to convince the mind to adopt a rubber glove as belonging to its own body; in this video you can see this unbelievable willingness at work.
David Eagleman, as part of his research into Time Perception, set up a test where a small delay of .2 seconds was interceded between pressing a button and a light bulb coming alight. At first the subjects noticed the delay but after a while they felt there was no lag between the cause (pressing the button) and effect (light coming alight). The test showed how the mind was willing to recalibrated it’s construction of Time Perception in order to unify the two sensations into a single sensation
Then Prof. Eagleman removed the delay to zero and his subjects told the instructors that the light came on before they had had time to press the button, this happened because the mind got the order of events the wrong way round. This sensation would gradually disappear after the subject had pressed the button a few more times. Returning to our case of watching a Nurse touch our foot, the Tidying Up Clock has assessed that there will always be a time delay between the two sensations (seeing and feeling). This information has been used to calibrate the subconscious Mind which unifies the two sensations into a single experience for the Master Was-Clock . When we watch the nurse we feel that the cause (seeing her hand touch your skin) and effect (feeling her touch your skin) happen simultaneously (even though the brain experienced a lag between the two sensations) Motion Blindness If Time Perception is a construction of the mind, how about Motion? Is our perception of Motion a construction too? This insight that Motion is a Perception is confirmed by a condition known as “Akinetopsia” or “Motion Blindness”, a condition that can be induced by drugs or in rare cases happen to people with lesions in their brains. These unlucky people lose their ability to see objects move. In one case study, a patient called LM described pouring a cup of tea or coffee as difficult “because the fluid appeared to be frozen, like a glacier“. She did not know when to stop pouring, because she could not perceive the movement of the fluid, but she could see that the cup had got fuller. There are illusions you can try that have the reverse effect to Motion Blindness. This Waterfall illusion induces you to see static images move. You can see the movement but you are aware that nothing on the picture is moving
And here is a static image that just won’t keep still, but I believe it might be a physiological response that has to do with Saccades rather than the subconscious.
The Subconscious Mind Many of us think of our Subconscious mind as being a dark place. Perhaps we fear the unknown, perhaps Freud instilled in us a belief that it is place where our wickedness and fears reside? In the model we are engaging with drawing the subconscious is a Multi-verse with Multi-Time that knows no logic. It comes to the world as an innocent, it is designed to be accommodating and plastic so that it can envelop new ideas however crazy. It is a world where imagination is not confined by logic or objective truth
Venus set off in her carriage to wage war on Chastity.
French 14th Century Although we cannot directly know its workings it is a world well known to us because we are already living most of our lives there, we know it through metaphors of language, dreams, fantasies, poetry and Art. In the Subconscious no idea is censored or too difficult to accept, this willingness to envelop crazy concepts is the design feature that makes our minds flexible enough to see or imagine things we have never seen before
The Penis Tree – French 14th Century
but the subconscious mind will build memories of associations between objects and emotions. Perhaps this is what upsets us. In the Subconscious mind everyday objects will often stimulate strong emotions: fear, love, anger, lust, certainty and doubt. Again these are features that were put there by evolution to make our minds able to deal with everything that the World throws at us. None of this is reason to fear our subconscious. How Conscious and Subconscious Responses are Generated in our Minds I expect you are confused. I have made this simplified diagram to show how I think our Subconscious and Conscious thoughts are related
Generation of Conscious and Subconscious Responses
Windows into the Mind A well constructed Photograph can capture exquisite dance movements of extraordinary beauty, but the photograph will always the record the Real World which is different from the time warped multi-verse of our Subconscious Minds. The net result is that the photographic image will always be different from how a member of the audience experiences the dance movement whilst watching a live performance on stage.
Natalia Makarova There is one sort of camera that can reproduce the Flash Lag illusion, that is the video camera. In this video you can view Natalia Makarova using the properties of the Flash Lag Bendiness effect to enhance her swan-like arm movements; the illusion makes her arms appear to be more flexible and fluid than they are in real life.
Natalia Makarova Swan Lake Act 1 Royal Opera House
Animators Know how to Handle all this Stuff? When artists make drawings of movement they are recording the experiences they felt they saw in their minds and feeding them back into the brains of their audiences. Animators are movement experts, so it is informative to examine their tried and tested knowledge of how to reconstruct our subjective experiences of Vision, Time Perception and Motion Perception. Below is a page ofPreston Blair’s (1908 – 1995)instructions for animators. Animators call this shape changing technique “Stretch and Squash“. At the apex of the cycle, when the ball is momentarily static in the air, the ball is round, as it builds up speed on its descent it elongates, when hits the ground the animator exaggerates the squash. On the same page Mr Blair applies these Stretch and Squash illusions to how he treats figures.
If you watch carefully you will see that both balls change shape. In the top tier video, where I made no shape changing to the perfectly round ball, the ball appears to slightly change shape because we experience the flash lag effect whenever we watch a real ball in motion. In the lower tier video I have changed the shape of the ball as per Preston Blair’s instructions and the ball changes shape in an exaggerated way, this over-emphasises what happens in real life.
People may wonder why Preston Blair wants to exaggerate bendy illusion effect, surely the artist should use the upper tier version which accurately matches the level of Flash Lag we experience in real life? The answer is that artists want to represent their feelings about the real world, and through exaggerating they are utilising another aspect of neuroscience called Peak Shift. Selective use of Peak Shift gives the artist control over the emotional balance of their work.
Peak Shift Every Artist needs to be familiar with the principle of Peak Shift which was first discovered in experiments with rats: A rat was trained to understand that a slightly rectangular boxes contained food, whilst square boxes contained no food.
After the rat had learnt to choose a slightly rectangular box, and never a square box, the rat was given a choice between a extra elongated rectangular box and the usual slightly rectangular box. The rat chose the extra elongated box rather than the usual shape. It seemed that the rat’s brain had decided that there was a rule; the more rectangular the box the more food would be inside it.
This is called Peak Shift. After Peak shift was discovered it was found in many animals. Baby seagulls respond to an orange blob at the back of their mother’s throat. When the mother opens her mouth and shows her chicks the orange blob at the back of her throat the chicks excitedly ask to be fed. The chicks even respond to an orange blob on the end of a stick. The chicks are like the rat with the rectangle box, when they see an orange blob they think they will get a food reward. When scientists produce a stick which has three orange blobs they get super excited, and chose it rather than the stick with one orange blob. This is considered to be a peak shift response.
Courtship often involves male animals displaying their maleness to the females. Perhaps that is how the Irish Elk got burdened with antlers that were over nine feet wide; the bigger the display the more the females liked them?
Peak shift is also thought to be responsible for driving fashion to extremes. In the 1990s in Japan it became cool amongst school girls to wear their white school socks slightly ruffled round the ankles (they were imitating socks from cartoon characters). Quite soon a trend developed for bigger and more ruffled socks which were thought to be extra cool. The fashion industry pushed this trend to extremes by providing specially made extra-large “loose socks” so that young girls could feel super, super cool.
Other obvious examples are; Teddy boy hairstyles in the 50s, miniskirts and bell bottoms in the 60s, Mohican punk hairstyles in the 70s and Dallas style shoulder pads in the 80s. We see this peak shift behaviour around us all the time. Artist use Peak Shift to control recognition in their images. Obama has slightly sticking out ears. By exaggerating the size of his ears we can make him more instantly recognisable than the real Obama.
Peak Shift also can be used to heighten emotional content. For instance this little girl has the best smile ever
if we trace the size of the smile it covers this much of her face
A typical smiley’s mouth is twice as large as in real life and by making the pupils of the eyes bigger the smiley will look even happier. The Smiley expresses pure happiness.
Applying Peak Shift to Animation In this video an experienced animator has selectively adapted his technique to suite the feeling he wanted to express.
A Note to Artists Is this knowledge about Master Was-Clocks, Tidying Up Clocks, Calibration and Prediction relevant to drawing movement? The answer is a big Yes because the knowledge forces us to accept that Time and Motion Perception are constructed in the mind. It brings home to us that things we see on the cinema in our head are as unreal as the pictures on your computer screens. Images in our heads are generated from complex subconscious processes where Time and Space becomes warped. The world of Subconscious thought is a “before” place of total plasticity that is, and always will be, untouched by Free Will, Objective Truth and Logic; a place of innocence and purity We have discovered in earlier chapters that Active Drawing happens on a Dynamic Workspace (the Paper) where marks are applied in sequences. As each line is applied the drawing builds. Each new mark is a reaction by our super-fast subconscious minds to lines and patterns that we put on to the Workspace. Time is an element within the patterns on the paper that has to be assessed by the Sunconscious, it is forever being measured and calibrated and warped into sense. These processes are all happening dynamically in the inaccessible closets of the subconscious. As we move deeper we will learn to draw movement. We will learn to trust our Subconscious not as somewhere dark, but as a source of light. Join me on this journey and we will have a lot of fun together!
The Encyclopaedia of Crazy animals grew out of my ambition to use neuroscience as a tool to improve my drawing. The project came about because I am interested the complex relationship between fixed reason and plastic imagination. This relationship, which was first alluded to by the Greek philosopher Plato, is at the heart of the way the mind makes sense of the world through categorisation and visual grammar.
Drawing is about communicating through engaging with the virtual world of sight which appears to us are a sort of cinema in our heads. This cinema screen lights up when we open our eyes and imagine in our dreams. The images are constructed from data that has originally been collected through our eyes and processed through our central brains and finely refined in the occipital lobes at the back of our brains.
The plasticity of imaginative sight, and the rigidity of reasoned sight, are melded together in the way we see movement. The balance between these two elements make it possible to draw the movement of a ballet dancer.
My encyclopaedia pushes the balance between plasticity and what reason is willing to believes to the extremes. Looking at these extremes tells me about the rules that underpin the grammar of sight (another huge subject about which I intend to write about in my blog posts). For the moment lets just enjoy these images!
Lezginka Dancers – the dance between eagles and swans
I saw Lezginka dancers for the first time in 2014 when I was unwillingly dragged by my wife to the Winter Olympic Games in Sochii, Russia. I am allergic to sport and ended up spending most of my time in the cultural venue where I saw Lezginka dancing for the first time. (see my illustrated blog post about my visit to Sochii).
Lezginka dancing is a generic term for an exciting dance form found amongst the many tribal nations (Both Islamic and Christian) that live in Caucasus mountains bordering the Black and Caspian seas. The Male Lezginka dancers are eagles and the girls are Swans. This video shows just how much fun this style of dancing is:
The colourful tribal costumes are as exciting as the the dances.
Our new friends in the cultural tent invited us to a wedding in Dagestan, which was an opportunity not to be missed. In Dagestan we met watch the professional Lezginka dancers in rehearsal. It was one of the most exciting moments of my life.